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The Procedure for Filing FIR and the Criminal Investigation Process under CRPC


The initiation of criminal proceedings often begins with the filing of a First Information Report (FIR), marking the inception of a thorough investigation into alleged offenses. Understanding the intricacies of this process is crucial for both law enforcement agencies and individuals seeking justice. This blog aims to provide a comprehensive walkthrough of the procedure for filing an FIR and the subsequent stages of the criminal investigation process under the Code of Criminal Procedure (CRPC).


  1. Filing an FIR: The First Step in Criminal Proceedings (Section 154):
  2. Definition and Purpose:

A First Information Report (FIR), as defined in Section 154 of the CRPC, is a formal document that records the details of an alleged offense. It serves as the foundation for the initiation of a criminal investigation.

  1. Reporting to the Police:

The process begins when an individual, the informant, approaches the police station having jurisdiction over the area where the offense occurred. The informant provides information about the offense to the officer in charge.

  1. Recording the FIR:

Upon receiving the information, the police officer is duty-bound to register the FIR. The details provided by the informant are documented, and the FIR is signed by the informant. The informant must provide accurate and comprehensive information to ensure a proper and effective investigation.

  1. Copy of the FIR:

The informant has the right to receive a free copy of the FIR. This copy serves as a crucial record of the initial information provided to the police.


  1. Investigation Process: Unraveling the Layers (Sections 156-173):


  1. Preliminary Investigation (Sections 156-157):

After the FIR is filed, the police initiate a preliminary investigation. This involves the collection of evidence, examination of witnesses, and visits to the crime scene. The objective is to gather sufficient material to determine whether there is a prima facie case for proceeding with the investigation.

  1. Magisterial Supervision (Sections 159-176):

If the police find evidence suggesting the commission of an offense, they may proceed with the investigation. Sections 159 to 176 of the CRPC provide for magisterial supervision during various stages of the investigation, ensuring transparency and judicial oversight.

  1. Recording Statements and Confessions (Sections 161-164):

The investigation process involves the recording of statements from witnesses and the accused. Section 161 empowers the police to examine witnesses, while Section 162 ensures that their statements are recorded. Section 164 covers the recording of confessions or statements before a magistrate, adding a layer of formality and legal scrutiny.

  1. Submission of Police Report (Section 173):

Upon completion of the investigation, the police submit a report to the magistrate under Section 173. This report includes details of the offense, the evidence collected, and the names of the persons acquainted with the circumstances. The magistrate may then take cognizance of the offense and proceed with the trial.


  1. Judicial Review and Further Proceedings:


  1. Judicial Scrutiny (Sections 190-199):

The magistrate, upon receiving the police report, has the authority to take cognizance of the offense under Section 190. This marks the transition from the investigative phase to the judicial phase of criminal proceedings. The magistrate may issue warrants, summon witnesses, and proceed with the trial.

  1. Commencement of Trial (Sections 225-237):

The trial begins with the framing of charges under Sections 225-237. The accused is informed of the charges against them, and the prosecution presents evidence to substantiate the allegations. The trial follows the due process of law, ensuring fairness and adherence to legal principles.

  1. Conclusion of Trial (Sections 238-250):

The trial concludes with the judgment of the court. Sections 238 to 250 of the CRPC outline the process for pronouncing the judgment, including the considerations, findings, and sentencing if the accused is found guilty.



The procedure for filing an FIR and the subsequent criminal investigation process under the CRPC is a well-structured framework designed to ensure justice and uphold the rule of law. From the initial step of filing an FIR to the conclusion of a trial, each stage involves a careful balance of law enforcement actions, individual rights, and judicial oversight. As we navigate this legal journey, it is essential to recognize the significance of accurate and comprehensive information during the FIR filing process, as it sets the tone for a fair and effective criminal investigation. The CRPC’s meticulous provisions serve as a guide, ensuring that justice is pursued with diligence, transparency, and respect for the rights of all parties involved.

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